Acronyms & Abbreviations

In our modern world it has become the norm to use abbreviations and acronyms and in the emission monitoring world it is no different. We have tried to compile a list that reflects usage within Europe. This list may not be exhaustive but will give a good indication of what is in use.

Quick Select

A

AAS - Atomic absorption spectroscopy

AFNOR - Association Francaise de Normalisation – French standardisation body

AFS - Atomic fluorescence spectrometry

AM - Alternative method

AMS - Automated Measuring System (see CEM), definition used within Europe

ANSI - American National Standards Institute.

AST - Annual surveillance test refer CEN standard EN14181

ASTM - American Society for Testing and Materials - a professional organization that publishes standard methods and performance criteria often incorporated by reference in US EPA regulations and methods.

AWMA - USA Air and Waste Management Association - a professional organization that coordinates technical information dissemination on environmental issues through workshops, conferences, publications, and other outreach activities.

B

BAT - Best available technique

BATNEEC - Best available technique not entailing excessive cost (Useage now generally discontinued in European legislation in favour of BAT)

BREF - BAT reference document developed by European IPPC Bureau

BS - British Standard

BSI - British Standards Institute. UK standardisation body

C

CEMS - Continuous emission monitoring system - the equipment for the sampling, analysis, and data reduction of gaseous emissions measurements on a continuous basis.

CEN - Committee for European Standardization (ComitéEuropéen de Normalisation, EuropäischesKomiteefürNormung)

CENLEC - European committee for electrotechnical standardization

CFR - USA EPA code of federal regulations - codification of all Federal regulations divided by titles and parts. Title 40 contains essentially all of the environmental regulations.

COSHH - Control of substances hazardous to health

CPM - Condensable particulate matter as measured for example with USA Method 202 involving analysis of back half of USA Method 5 or 17 sampling train.

CRM - Certified reference material - an audit material, usually calibration gas certified by the National Institute accredited organisation.

CVAAS - Cold vapour atomic absorption spectroscopy - analytical technique for mercury and other metal ions.

D

DEFRA - Department for Environment Food and Rural Affairs

DIN - Deutsches Institutfür Normung (the German institute for standardization)

DIS - Draft international standard

DMPDA - Dimethyl phenylenediamine

DOAS - Differential optical absorption spectroscopy

DSEAR - Dangerous Substances and Explosive Atmospheres Regulations

E

EA - Environment Agency responsible for England

EEA - European Environment Agency

EC - European Commission

ECD - Electron capture detector - analytical technique used in gas chromatography.

EDAX - Energy dispersive analysis by X-rays

ELCD - Electro-conductivity detector (Hall detector) - analytical technique used in gas chromatography.

ELV - Emission limit value

EMEP - Cooperative programme for monitoring and evaluation of the long-range transmission of air pollutants in Europe

EMTIC - USA Emission Measurement Technical Information Centre - the information centre in USA EPA responsible for providing guidance and technical assistance for stationary source emission test methods.

EN - European standard

EPA - Environmental Protection Agency, U. S. Government.

EPR - Environmental permit regulation

E-PRTR - European pollutant release and transfer register

EPRI - USA Electric Power Research Institute - research organization representing the utility industry interests.

ETO - Ethylene oxide.

ETS - Emissions Trading Scheme

ETSI - European Telecommunications Standards Institute

ETV - Environmental technology verification programme (USA)

EU - European Union

F

FDIS - Final draft international standard

FGD - Flue gas desulfurization – SOx emission control device often used at fossil fuel fired power plants.

FID - Flame-ionisation detector

FPD - Flame-photometric detector

FSD - Full-scale deflection

FTIR - Fourier transform infrared spectrometry

G

GC - Gas chromatography.

GC-FPD - Gas chromatography-flame photometric detection

GC-MS - Gas chromatography – mass spectrometry

GFAA(S) - Graphite furnace atomic absorption (spectroscopy) - analytical method for metal ions.

GFC - Gas filter correlation - analytical technique usually applied in the IR for TRS.

H

HPLC - High performance liquid chromatography.

HRGC/ HRMS - High resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry - highly sensitive analytical technique for dioxin and furans.

HSE - Health and Safety Executive

HWI - Hazardous waste incinerator, refer WID.

I

IC - Ion chromatography

ICAP - Inductively coupled argon plasma emission spectroscopy

ICE - Internal combustion engine.

ICP - Inductively coupled plasma (spectroscopy)

ICPCR - Ion chromatography with a post column reactor - analytical technique specifically for hexavalent chromium.

IED - Industrial emissions directive

IMS - Ion mobility spectrometry

IPA - Isopropyl alcohol

IPC - Integrated pollution control

IPPC - Integrated pollution prevention and control

IR - Infrared

ISC - Intersociety Committee

ISE - Ion-selective electrode

ISO - International Standards Organisation

iTEQ - International toxic equivalent quantity

J

JRC - European Joint Research Centre

L

LAAPC - Local authority air pollution control

LAQM - Local air quality management

LAU - Environment Agency Local Authority Unit.

LCPD - Large combustion plant directive

LOD - Limit of detection

LTRAP - Convention on long-range transboundary air pollution

M

MCERTS - The Environment Agency’s monitoring certification scheme

MCPD - Medium combustion plant directive

MDHS - Method for the Determination of Hazardous Substances

MID - Method implementation document – developed by EA and STA on how to apply standards in the UK.

MM5 - USA Modified Method 5 - extractive adsorbing emission sampling train for the measurement of volatile organic compounds, usually toxic or hazardous compounds, with boiling points over about 130oC.

MS - Mass spectrometry

MSW - Municipal solid waste

MWC - Municipal waste combustor.

MWI - Medical waste incinerator or municipal waste incinerator, refer to WID.

N

NDIR - Non-dispersive infrared spectrometry

NDUV - Non-dispersive ultraviolet spectrometry

NECD - National Emission Ceilings Directive

NEN - Netherlands standardisation institute

NIOSH - National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (USA)

NIST - USA National Institute for Standards and Technology –US Federal organization responsible for evaluating and setting performance and design standards for measurements (formerly NBS).

NMOC - Non-methane organic compounds organic compounds other than methane.

NMVOCs - Non-methane volatile organic compounds

NOx - Oxides of nitrogen – by convention taken to be the sum of NO and NO2 (excluding N2O and other nitrogen oxides).

NPL - UK National Physical Laboratory – the UK’s National Measurement Institute

O

OES - Optical emission spectroscopy

OMA - Operator monitoring assessment

OPM - Open path monitoring system (long path monitoring).

OSHA - Occupational Safety and Health Administration (USA)

OU - Odour units

P

PAHs - Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, also known as poly-aromatic hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

PCBs - Polychlorinated biphenyls

PIC - Product of incomplete combustion.

PID - Photo-ionisation detector

PM - Particulate matter

PM10, PM2.5 - Particle fraction with diameter less than 10 µm or 2.5 µm

POM - Polycyclic organic matter - includes benzene and related compounds often in particulate form at ambient conditions.

PPC Regulations - Pollution prevention and control regulations

prEN - Draft European standard

PUF - Polyurethane foam

Q

QA - Quality assurance

QAL1 - Quality assurance level 1 – AMS as tested to the requirements CEN standard EN15267 or MCERTS CEM systems

QAL2 - Quality assurance level 2 – Calibration of an AMS in accordance with CEN standard EN14181

QAL3 - Quality assurance level 3 – On going performance of an AMS is accordance with CEN standard EN14181

QC - Quality control

R

ROG - Reactive organic gases.

Rsd - Relative standard deviation

RTP - Research Triangle Park, NC, USA - location for several USA EPA Program offices.

S

SCD - Sulphur chemiluminescence detector

SCR - Selective catalytic reduction – NOx control technique.

SD - Standard deviation

SED - Solvent emission directive

SEM - Scanning electron microscopy

Semi-VOST - Semi-volatile organic compounds sampling train - see MM5.

SEPA - Scottish Environment Protection Agency

SOx - Oxides of sulphur.

SRM - Standard reference method

SSP - Site-specific protocol

STA - Source Testing Association – Technical trade association representing companies with an interest in emission monitoring.

T

TC - Technical committee as referred to in standards organisations e.g. CEN

TCDD - Tetrachlorodibenzodioxin

TCDF - Tetrachlorodibenzofuran

TD - Thermal desorption

TDL - Tuneable diode laser

TE - Technical endorsement as referred to in MCERTS performance standard for personnel.

TEF - Toxic equivalent factor

TEOM - Tapered element oscillating microbalance

TEQ - Toxic equivalent quantity

TGN - Technical guidance note

THC - Total hydrocarbons

TPM - Total particulate matter

TRS - Total reduced sulphur

TSP - Total suspended particulate matter.

TVOC - Total volatile organic compound.

U

UKAS - United Kingdom Accreditation Service

US EPA - United States Environmental Protection Agency

US EPA CT - United States Environmental Protection Agency Conditional Test

UV - Ultraviolet

UV-DOAS - Ultraviolet dual optical absorption spectrometry.

V

VDI - Verein Deutscher Ingenieure (German national standards body)

VOC - Volatile organic compound

VOST - Volatile organic sampling train - extractive adsorbing emission sampling train for the measurement of volatile organic compounds, usually toxic or hazardous compounds, with boiling points up to about 130oC. Analysis of sample is by GC/MS

W

WG - Working group as referred to in standards organisations e.g. CEN

WHO - World Health Organisation

WHO-TEQ - World Health Organisation toxic equivalent quantity

WID - Waste incineration directive

X

XAD/ XAD-2 - Trade name for a polystyrene adsorbent resin

A

AAS - Atomic absorption spectroscopy

AFNOR - Association Francaise de Normalisation – French standardisation body

AFS - Atomic fluorescence spectrometry

AM - Alternative method

AMS - Automated Measuring System (see CEM), definition used within Europe

ANSI - American National Standards Institute.

AST - Annual surveillance test refer CEN standard EN14181

ASTM - American Society for Testing and Materials - a professional organization that publishes standard methods and performance criteria often incorporated by reference in US EPA regulations and methods.

AWMA - USA Air and Waste Management Association - a professional organization that coordinates technical information dissemination on environmental issues through workshops, conferences, publications, and other outreach activities.

B

BAT - Best available technique

BATNEEC - Best available technique not entailing excessive cost (Useage now generally discontinued in European legislation in favour of BAT)

BREF - BAT reference document developed by European IPPC Bureau

BS - British Standard

BSI - British Standards Institute. UK standardisation body

C

CEMS - Continuous emission monitoring system - the equipment for the sampling, analysis, and data reduction of gaseous emissions measurements on a continuous basis.

CEN - Committee for European Standardization (ComitéEuropéen de Normalisation, EuropäischesKomiteefürNormung)

CENLEC - European committee for electrotechnical standardization

CFR - USA EPA code of federal regulations - codification of all Federal regulations divided by titles and parts. Title 40 contains essentially all of the environmental regulations.

COSHH - Control of substances hazardous to health

CPM - Condensable particulate matter as measured for example with USA Method 202 involving analysis of back half of USA Method 5 or 17 sampling train.

CRM - Certified reference material - an audit material, usually calibration gas certified by the National Institute accredited organisation.

CVAAS - Cold vapour atomic absorption spectroscopy - analytical technique for mercury and other metal ions.

D

DEFRA - Department for Environment Food and Rural Affairs

DIN - Deutsches Institutfür Normung (the German institute for standardization)

DIS - Draft international standard

DMPDA - Dimethyl phenylenediamine

DOAS - Differential optical absorption spectroscopy

DSEAR - Dangerous Substances and Explosive Atmospheres Regulations

E

EA - Environment Agency responsible for England

EEA - European Environment Agency

EC - European Commission

ECD - Electron capture detector - analytical technique used in gas chromatography.

EDAX - Energy dispersive analysis by X-rays

ELCD - Electro-conductivity detector (Hall detector) - analytical technique used in gas chromatography.

ELV - Emission limit value

EMEP - Cooperative programme for monitoring and evaluation of the long-range transmission of air pollutants in Europe

EMTIC - USA Emission Measurement Technical Information Centre - the information centre in USA EPA responsible for providing guidance and technical assistance for stationary source emission test methods.

EN - European standard

EPA - Environmental Protection Agency, U. S. Government.

EPR - Environmental permit regulation

E-PRTR - European pollutant release and transfer register

EPRI - USA Electric Power Research Institute - research organization representing the utility industry interests.

ETO - Ethylene oxide.

ETS - Emissions Trading Scheme

ETSI - European Telecommunications Standards Institute

ETV - Environmental technology verification programme (USA)

EU - European Union

F

FDIS - Final draft international standard

FGD - Flue gas desulfurization – SOx emission control device often used at fossil fuel fired power plants.

FID - Flame-ionisation detector

FPD - Flame-photometric detector

FSD - Full-scale deflection

FTIR - Fourier transform infrared spectrometry

G

GC - Gas chromatography.

GC-FPD - Gas chromatography-flame photometric detection

GC-MS - Gas chromatography – mass spectrometry

GFAA(S) - Graphite furnace atomic absorption (spectroscopy) - analytical method for metal ions.

GFC - Gas filter correlation - analytical technique usually applied in the IR for TRS.

H

HPLC - High performance liquid chromatography.

HRGC/ HRMS - High resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry - highly sensitive analytical technique for dioxin and furans.

HSE - Health and Safety Executive

HWI - Hazardous waste incinerator, refer WID.

I

IC - Ion chromatography

ICAP - Inductively coupled argon plasma emission spectroscopy

ICE - Internal combustion engine.

ICP - Inductively coupled plasma (spectroscopy)

ICPCR - Ion chromatography with a post column reactor - analytical technique specifically for hexavalent chromium.

IED - Industrial emissions directive

IMS - Ion mobility spectrometry

IPA - Isopropyl alcohol

IPC - Integrated pollution control

IPPC - Integrated pollution prevention and control

IR - Infrared

ISC - Intersociety Committee

ISE - Ion-selective electrode

ISO - International Standards Organisation

iTEQ - International toxic equivalent quantity

J

JRC - European Joint Research Centre

L

LAAPC - Local authority air pollution control

LAQM - Local air quality management

LAU - Environment Agency Local Authority Unit.

LCPD - Large combustion plant directive

LOD - Limit of detection

LTRAP - Convention on long-range transboundary air pollution

M

MCERTS - The Environment Agency’s monitoring certification scheme

MCPD - Medium combustion plant directive

MDHS - Method for the Determination of Hazardous Substances

MID - Method implementation document – developed by EA and STA on how to apply standards in the UK.

MM5 - USA Modified Method 5 - extractive adsorbing emission sampling train for the measurement of volatile organic compounds, usually toxic or hazardous compounds, with boiling points over about 130oC.

MS - Mass spectrometry

MSW - Municipal solid waste

MWC - Municipal waste combustor.

MWI - Medical waste incinerator or municipal waste incinerator, refer to WID.

N

NDIR - Non-dispersive infrared spectrometry

NDUV - Non-dispersive ultraviolet spectrometry

NECD - National Emission Ceilings Directive

NEN - Netherlands standardisation institute

NIOSH - National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (USA)

NIST - USA National Institute for Standards and Technology –US Federal organization responsible for evaluating and setting performance and design standards for measurements (formerly NBS).

NMOC - Non-methane organic compounds organic compounds other than methane.

NMVOCs - Non-methane volatile organic compounds

NOx - Oxides of nitrogen – by convention taken to be the sum of NO and NO2 (excluding N2O and other nitrogen oxides).

NPL - UK National Physical Laboratory – the UK’s National Measurement Institute

O

OES - Optical emission spectroscopy

OMA - Operator monitoring assessment

OPM - Open path monitoring system (long path monitoring).

OSHA - Occupational Safety and Health Administration (USA)

OU - Odour units

P

PAHs - Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, also known as poly-aromatic hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

PCBs - Polychlorinated biphenyls

PIC - Product of incomplete combustion.

PID - Photo-ionisation detector

PM - Particulate matter

PM10, PM2.5 - Particle fraction with diameter less than 10 µm or 2.5 µm

POM - Polycyclic organic matter - includes benzene and related compounds often in particulate form at ambient conditions.

PPC Regulations - Pollution prevention and control regulations

prEN - Draft European standard

PUF - Polyurethane foam

Q

QA - Quality assurance

QAL1 - Quality assurance level 1 – AMS as tested to the requirements CEN standard EN15267 or MCERTS CEM systems

QAL2 - Quality assurance level 2 – Calibration of an AMS in accordance with CEN standard EN14181

QAL3 - Quality assurance level 3 – On going performance of an AMS is accordance with CEN standard EN14181

QC - Quality control

R

ROG - Reactive organic gases.

Rsd - Relative standard deviation

RTP - Research Triangle Park, NC, USA - location for several USA EPA Program offices.

S

SCD - Sulphur chemiluminescence detector

SCR - Selective catalytic reduction – NOx control technique.

SD - Standard deviation

SED - Solvent emission directive

SEM - Scanning electron microscopy

Semi-VOST - Semi-volatile organic compounds sampling train - see MM5.

SEPA - Scottish Environment Protection Agency

SOx - Oxides of sulphur.

SRM - Standard reference method

SSP - Site-specific protocol

STA - Source Testing Association – Technical trade association representing companies with an interest in emission monitoring.

T

TC - Technical committee as referred to in standards organisations e.g. CEN

TCDD - Tetrachlorodibenzodioxin

TCDF - Tetrachlorodibenzofuran

TD - Thermal desorption

TDL - Tuneable diode laser

TE - Technical endorsement as referred to in MCERTS performance standard for personnel.

TEF - Toxic equivalent factor

TEOM - Tapered element oscillating microbalance

TEQ - Toxic equivalent quantity

TGN - Technical guidance note

THC - Total hydrocarbons

TPM - Total particulate matter

TRS - Total reduced sulphur

TSP - Total suspended particulate matter.

TVOC - Total volatile organic compound.

U

UKAS - United Kingdom Accreditation Service

US EPA - United States Environmental Protection Agency

US EPA CT - United States Environmental Protection Agency Conditional Test

UV - Ultraviolet

UV-DOAS - Ultraviolet dual optical absorption spectrometry.

V

VDI - Verein Deutscher Ingenieure (German national standards body)

VOC - Volatile organic compound

VOST - Volatile organic sampling train - extractive adsorbing emission sampling train for the measurement of volatile organic compounds, usually toxic or hazardous compounds, with boiling points up to about 130oC. Analysis of sample is by GC/MS

W

WG - Working group as referred to in standards organisations e.g. CEN

WHO - World Health Organisation

WHO-TEQ - World Health Organisation toxic equivalent quantity

WID - Waste incineration directive

X

XAD/ XAD-2 - Trade name for a polystyrene adsorbent resin

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